Asbestos Diseases Overview,Mesothelioma Due to Asbestos Exposure,Asbestos Containing Products,Asbestos and Construction

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Mesothelioma

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Mesothelioma, more precisely malignant mesothelioma, is a rare form of cancer that develops from the protective lining that covers many of the body's internal organs, the mesothelium. It is usually caused by exposure to asbestos.[1]

Its most common site is the pleura (outer lining of the lungs and internal chest wall), but it may also occur in the peritoneum (the lining of the abdominal cavity), the pericardium (a sac that surrounds the heart),[2] or the tunica vaginalis (a sac that surrounds the testis).

Most people who develop mesothelioma have worked on jobs where they inhaled asbestos, or they have been exposed to asbestos dust and fiber in other ways. It has also been suggested that washing the clothes of a family member who worked with asbestos can put a person at risk for developing mesothelioma.[3] Unlike lung cancer, there is no association between mesothelioma and smoking, but smoking greatly increases the risk of other asbestos-induced cancers.[4] Those who have been exposed to asbestos have collected damages for asbestos-related disease, including mesothelioma. Compensation via asbestos funds or lawsuits is an important issue in law practices regarding mesothelioma (see asbestos and the law).

The symptoms of mesothelioma include shortness of breath due to pleural effusion (fluid between the lung and the chest wall) or chest wall pain, and general symptoms such as weight loss. The diagnosis may be suspected with chest X-ray and CT scan, and is confirmed with a biopsy (tissue sample) and microscopic examination. A thoracoscopy (inserting a tube with a camera into the chest) can be used to take biopsies. It allows the introduction of substances such as talc to obliterate the pleural space (called pleurodesis), which prevents more fluid from accumulating and pressing on the lung. Despite treatment with chemotherapy, radiation therapy or sometimes surgery, the disease carries a poor prognosis. Research about screening tests for the early detection of mesothelioma is ongoing.

Environmental exposures

Incidence of mesothelioma had been found to be higher in populations living near naturally occurring asbestos. For example, in central Cappadocia, Turkey, mesothelioma was causing 50% of all deaths in three small villages — Tuzköy, Karain and Sarıhıdır. Initially, this was attributed to erionite, a zeolite mineral with similar properties to asbestos. Recently, however, detailed epidemiological investigation showed that erionite causes mesothelioma mostly in families with a genetic predisposition.[18][19] The documented presence of asbestos fibers in water supplies and food products has fostered concerns about the possible impact of long-term and, as yet, unknown exposure of the general population to these fibers.

 Occupational

Exposure to asbestos fibers has been recognized as an occupational health hazard since the early 20th century. Numerous epidemiological studies have associated occupational exposure to asbestos with the development of pleural plaques, diffuse pleural thickening, asbestosis, carcinoma of the lung and larynx, gastrointestinal tumors, and diffuse malignant mesothelioma of the pleura and peritoneum. Asbestos has been widely used in many industrial products, including cement, brake linings, gaskets, roof shingles, flooring products, textiles, and insulation.

Commercial asbestos mining at Wittenoom, Western Australia, occurred between 1945 and 1966. A cohort study of miners employed at the mine reported that while no deaths occurred within the first 10 years after crocidolite exposure, 85 deaths attributable to mesothelioma had occurred by 1985. By 1994, 539 reported deaths due to mesothelioma had been reported in Western Australia.

 Paraoccupational secondary exposure

Family members and others living with asbestos workers have an increased risk of developing mesothelioma, and possibly other asbestos related diseases.[20][21] This risk may be the result of exposure to asbestos dust brought home on the clothing and hair of asbestos workers. To reduce the chance of exposing family members to asbestos fibres, asbestos workers are usually required to shower and change their clothing before leaving the workplace.

 Asbestos in buildings

Many building materials used in both public and domestic premises prior to the banning of asbestos may contain asbestos. Those performing renovation works or DIY activities may expose themselves to asbestos dust. In the UK use of Chrysotile asbestos was banned at the end of 1999. Brown and blue asbestos was banned in the UK around 1985. Buildings built or renovated prior to these dates may contain asbestos materials.

 

 

Image of Metastatic mesothelioma

Diagnosing mesothelioma is often difficult, because the symptoms are similar to those of a number of other conditions. Diagnosis begins with a review of the patient's medical history. A history of exposure to asbestos may increase clinical suspicion for mesothelioma. A physical examination is performed, followed by chest X-ray and often lung function tests. The X-ray may reveal pleural thickening commonly seen after asbestos exposure and increases suspicion of mesothelioma. A CT (or CAT) scan or an MRI is usually performed. If a large amount of fluid is present, abnormal cells may be detected by cytopathology if this fluid is aspirated with a syringe. For pleural fluid, this is done by thoracentesis or tube thoracostomy (chest tube); for ascites, with paracentesis or ascitic drain; and for pericardial[disambiguation needed] effusion with pericardiocentesis. While absence of malignant cells on cytology does not completely exclude mesothelioma, it makes it much more unlikely, especially if an alternative diagnosis can be made (e.g. tuberculosis, heart failure). Unfortunately, the diagnosis of malignant mesothelioma by cytology alone is difficult, even with expert pathologists.

Generally, a biopsy is needed to confirm a diagnosis of malignant mesothelioma. A doctor removes a sample of tissue for examination under a microscope by a pathologist. A biopsy may be done in different ways, depending on where the abnormal area is located. If the cancer is in the chest, the doctor may perform a thoracoscopy. In this procedure, the doctor makes a small cut through the chest wall and puts a thin, lighted tube called a thoracoscope into the chest between two ribs. Thoracoscopy allows the doctor to look inside the chest and obtain tissue samples. Alternatively, the chest surgeon might directly open the chest (thoracotomy). If the cancer is in the abdomen, the doctor may perform a laparoscopy. To obtain tissue for examination, the doctor makes a small incision in the abdomen and inserts a special instrument into the abdominal cavity. If these procedures do not yield enough tissue, more extensive diagnostic surgery may be necessary.

Immunohistochemical studies play an important role for the pathologist in differentiating malignant mesothelioma from neoplastic mimics. There are numerous tests and panels available. No single test is perfect for distinguishing mesothelioma from carcinoma or even benign versus malignant.

Typical immunohistochemistry results

Positive

Negative

EMA (epithelial membrane antigen) in a membranous distribution

CEA (carcinoembryonic antigen)

WT1 (Wilms' tumour 1)

B72.3

Calretinin

MOC-3 1

Mesothelin-1

CD15

Cytokeratin 5/6

Ber-EP4

HBME-1 (human mesothelial cell 1)

TTF-1 (thyroid transcription factor-1)

There are three histological types of malignant mesothelioma: (1) Epithelioid; (2) Sarcomatoid; and (3) Biphasic (Mixed). Epithelioid comprises about 50-60% of malignant mesothelioma cases and generally holds a better prognosis than the Sarcomatoid or Biphasic subtypes.[22]

 Staging

Staging of mesothelioma is based on the recommendation by the International Mesothelioma Interest Group.[23] TNM classification of the primary tumor, lymph node involvement, and distant metastasis is performed. Mesothelioma is staged Ia–IV (one-A to four) based on the TNM status.[23][24]

 Screening

There is no universally agreed protocol for screening people who have been exposed to asbestos. Screening tests might diagnose mesothelioma earlier than conventional methods thus improving the survival prospects for patients. The serum osteopontin level might be useful in screening asbestos-exposed people for mesothelioma. The level of soluble mesothelin-related protein is elevated in the serum of about 75% of patients at diagnosis and it has been suggested that it may be useful for screening.[25] Doctors have begun testing the Mesomark assay which measures levels of soluble mesothelin-related proteins (SMRPs) released by diseased mesothelioma cells.[26]

 

 Treatment

The prognosis for malignant mesothelioma remains disappointing, although there have been some modest improvements in prognosis from newer chemotherapies and multimodality treatments.[28] Treatment of malignant mesothelioma at earlier stages has a better prognosis, but cures are exceedingly rare. Clinical behavior of the malignancy is affected by several factors including the continuous mesothelial surface of the pleural cavity which favors local metastasis via exfoliated cells, invasion to underlying tissue and other organs within the pleural cavity, and the extremely long latency period between asbestos exposure and development of the disease. The histological subtype and the patient's age and health status also help predict prognosis. The epithelioid histology responds better to treatment and has a survival advantage over sarcomatoid histology.[29]

 Surgery

Surgery, by itself, has proved disappointing. In one large series, the median survival with surgery (including extrapleural pneumonectomy) was only 11.7 months.[28] However, research indicates varied success when used in combination with radiation and chemotherapy (Duke, 2008). (For more information on multimodality therapy with surgery, see below). A pleurectomy/decortication is the most common surgery, in which the lining of the chest is removed. Less common is an extrapleural pneumonectomy (EPP), in which the lung, lining of the inside of the chest, the hemi-diaphragm and the pericardium are removed.

 Radiation

For patients with localized disease, and who can tolerate a radical surgery, radiation is often given post-operatively as a consolidative treatment. The entire hemi-thorax is treated with radiation therapy, often given simultaneously with chemotherapy. Delivering radiation and chemotherapy after a radical surgery has led to extended life expectancy in selected patient populations with some patients surviving more than 5 years. As part of a curative approach to mesothelioma, radiotherapy is also commonly applied to the sites of chest drain insertion, in order to prevent growth of the tumor along the track in the chest wall.

Although mesothelioma is generally resistant to curative treatment with radiotherapy alone, palliative treatment regimens are sometimes used to relieve symptoms arising from tumor growth, such as obstruction of a major blood vessel. Radiation therapy when given alone with curative intent has never been shown to improve survival from mesothelioma. The necessary radiation dose to treat mesothelioma that has not been surgically removed would be very toxic.

 Chemotherapy

Chemotherapy is the only treatment for mesothelioma that has been proven to improve survival in randomised and controlled trials. The landmark study published in 2003 by Vogelzang and colleagues compared cisplatin chemotherapy alone with a combination of cisplatin and pemetrexed (brand name Alimta) chemotherapy in patients who had not received chemotherapy for malignant pleural mesothelioma previously and were not candidates for more aggressive "curative" surgery.[30] This trial was the first to report a survival advantage from chemotherapy in malignant pleural mesothelioma, showing a statistically significant improvement in median survival from 10 months in the patients treated with cisplatin alone to 13.3 months in the group of patients treated with cisplatin in the combination with pemetrexed and who also received supplementation with folate and vitamin B12. Vitamin supplementation was given to most patients in the trial and pemetrexed related side effects were significantly less in patients receiving pemetrexed when they also received daily oral folate 500mcg and intramuscular vitamin B12 1000mcg every 9 weeks compared with patients receiving pemetrexed without vitamin supplementation. The objective response rate increased from 20% in the cisplatin group to 46% in the combination pemetrexed group. Some side effects such as nausea and vomiting, stomatitis, and diarrhoea were more common in the combination pemetrexed group but only affected a minority of patients and overall the combination of pemetrexed and cisplatin was well tolerated when patients received vitamin supplementation; both quality of life and lung function tests improved in the combination pemetrexed group. In February 2004, the United States Food and Drug Administration approved pemetrexed for treatment of malignant pleural mesothelioma. However, there are still unanswered questions about the optimal use of chemotherapy, including when to start treatment, and the optimal number of cycles to give.

Cisplatin in combination with raltitrexed has shown an improvement in survival similar to that reported for pemetrexed in combination with cisplatin, but raltitrexed is no longer commercially available for this indication. For patients unable to tolerate pemetrexed, cisplatin in combination with gemcitabine or vinorelbine is an alternative, or vinorelbine on its own, although a survival benefit has not been shown for these drugs. For patients in whom cisplatin cannot be used, carboplatin can be substituted but non-randomised data have shown lower response rates and high rates of haematological toxicity for carboplatin-based combinations, albeit with similar survival figures to patients receiving cisplatin.[31]

In January 2009, the United States FDA approved using conventional therapies such as surgery in combination with radiation and or chemotherapy on stage I or II Mesothelioma after research conducted by a nationwide study by Duke University concluded an almost 50 point increase in remission rates.

 Immunotherapy

Treatment regimens involving immunotherapy have yielded variable results. For example, intrapleural inoculation of Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) in an attempt to boost the immune response, was found to be of no benefit to the patient (while it may benefit patients with bladder cancer). Mesothelioma cells proved susceptible to in vitro lysis by LAK cells following activation by interleukin-2 (IL-2), but patients undergoing this particular therapy experienced major side effects. Indeed, this trial was suspended in view of the unacceptably high levels of IL-2 toxicity and the severity of side effects such as fever and cachexia. Nonetheless, other trials involving interferon alpha have proved more encouraging with 20% of patients experiencing a greater than 50% reduction in tumor mass combined with minimal side effects.

 Heated Intraoperative Intraperitoneal Chemotherapy

A procedure known as heated intraoperative intraperitoneal chemotherapy was developed by Paul Sugarbaker at the Washington Cancer Institute.[32] The surgeon removes as much of the tumor as possible followed by the direct administration of a chemotherapy agent, heated to between 40 and 48°C, in the abdomen. The fluid is perfused for 60 to 120 minutes and then drained.

This technique permits the administration of high concentrations of selected drugs into the abdominal and pelvic surfaces. Heating the chemotherapy treatment increases the penetration of the drugs into tissues. Also, heating itself damages the malignant cells more than the normal cells.

This technique is also used in patients with malignant pleural mesothelioma.[33]

 Multimodality Therapy

All of the standard approaches to treating solid tumors—radiation, chemotherapy, and surgery—have been investigated in patients with malignant pleural mesothelioma. Although surgery, by itself, is not very effective, surgery combined with adjuvant chemotherapy and radiation (trimodality therapy) has produced significant survival extension (3–14 years) among patients with favorable prognostic factors.[34] However, other large series of examining multimodality treatment have only demonstrated modest improvement in survival (median survival 14.5 months and only 29.6% surviving 2 years).[28] Reducing the bulk of the tumor with cytoreductive surgery is key to extending survival. Two surgeries have been developed: extrapleural pneumonectomy and pleurectomy/decortication. The indications for performing these operations are unique. The choice of operation depends on the size of the patient's tumor. This is an important consideration because tumor volume has been identified as a prognostic factor in mesothelioma.[35] Pleurectomy/decortication spares the underlying lung and is performed in patients with early stage disease when the intention is to remove all gross visible tumor (macroscopic complete resection), not simply palliation.[36] Extrapleural pneumonectomy is a more extensive operation that involves resection of the parietal and visceral pleurae, underlying lung, ipsilateral diaphragm, and ipsilateral pericardium. This operation is indicated for a subset of patients with more advanced tumors, who can tolerate a pneumonectomy.[37]

 Epidemiology

Although reported incidence rates have increased in the past 20 years, mesothelioma is still a relatively rare cancer. The incidence rate varies from one country to another, from a low rate of less than 1 per 1,000,000 in Tunisia and Morocco, to the highest rate in Britain, Australia and Belgium: 30 per 1,000,000 per year.[38] For comparison, populations with high levels of smoking can have a lung cancer incidence of over 1,000 per 1,000,000. Incidence of malignant mesothelioma currently ranges from about 7 to 40 per 1,000,000 in industrialized Western nations, depending on the amount of asbestos exposure of the populations during the past several decades.[39] It has been estimated that incidence may have peaked at 15 per 1,000,000 in the United States in 2004. Incidence is expected to continue increasing in other parts of the world. Mesothelioma occurs more often in men than in women and risk increases with age, but this disease can appear in either men or women at any age. Approximately one fifth to one third of all mesotheliomas are peritoneal.

Between 1940 and 1979, approximately 27.5 million people were occupationally exposed to asbestos in the United States.[40] Between 1973 and 1984, the incidence of pleural mesothelioma among Caucasian males increased 300%. From 1980 to the late 1990s, the death rate from mesothelioma in the USA increased from 2,000 per year to 3,000, with men four times more likely to acquire it than women. These rates may not be accurate, since it is possible that many cases of mesothelioma are misdiagnosed as adenocarcinoma of the lung, which is difficult to differentiate from mesothelioma.

  Notable people who have lived for some time with mesothelioma

Although life expectancy with this disease is typically limited, there are notable survivors. In July 1982, Stephen Jay Gould was diagnosed with peritoneal mesothelioma. After his diagnosis, Gould wrote "The Median Isn't the Message"[46] for Discover magazine, in which he argued that statistics such as median survival are just useful abstractions, not destiny. Gould lived for another 20 years, eventually succumbing to metastatic adenocarcinoma of the lung, not mesothelioma. Author Paul Kraus was diagnosed with peritoneal mesothelioma in July 1997. He was given a prognosis of less than a year to live and used a variety of complementary modalities. He continued to outlive his prognosis and wrote a book about his experience "Surviving Mesothelioma and Other Cancers: A Patient's Guide"[47] in which he presented his philosophy about healing and the decision making that led him to use integrative medicine.

 Legal issues

The first lawsuits against asbestos manufacturers were in 1929. Since then, many lawsuits have been filed against asbestos manufacturers and employers, for neglecting to implement safety measures after the links between asbestos, asbestosis, and mesothelioma became known (some reports seem to place this as early as 1898). The liability resulting from the sheer number of lawsuits and people affected has reached billions of dollars.[48] The amounts and method of allocating compensation have been the source of many court cases, reaching up to the United States Supreme Court, and government attempts at resolution of existing and future cases. However, to date, the US Congress has not stepped in and there are no federal laws governing asbestos compensation.[49]

History

The first lawsuit against asbestos manufacturers was brought in 1929. The parties settled that lawsuit, and as part of the agreement, the attorneys agreed not to pursue further cases. In 1960, an article published by Wagner et al. was seminal in establishing mesothelioma as a disease arising from exposure to asbestos.[50] The article referred to over 30 case studies of people who had suffered from mesothelioma in South Africa. Some exposures were transient and some were mine workers. Prior to the use of advanced microscopy techniques, malignant mesothelioma was often diagnosed as a variant form of lung cancer.[51] In 1962 McNulty reported the first diagnosed case of malignant mesothelioma in an Australian asbestos worker.[52] The worker had worked in the mill at the asbestos mine in Wittenoom from 1948 to 1950.

In the town of Wittenoom, asbestos-containing mine waste was used to cover schoolyards and playgrounds. In 1965 an article in the British Journal of Industrial Medicine established that people who lived in the neighbourhoods of asbestos factories and mines, but did not work in them, had contracted mesothelioma.

Despite proof that the dust associated with asbestos mining and milling causes asbestos-related disease, mining began at Wittenoom in 1943 and continued until 1966. In 1974 the first public warnings of the dangers of blue asbestos were published in a cover story called "Is this Killer in Your Home?" in Australia's Bulletin magazine. In 1978 the Western Australian Government decided to phase out the town of Wittenoom, following the publication of a Health Dept. booklet, "The Health Hazard at Wittenoom", containing the results of air sampling and an appraisal of worldwide medical information.

By 1979 the first writs for negligence related to Wittenoom were issued against CSR and its subsidiary ABA, and the Asbestos Diseases Society was formed to represent the Wittenoom victims.

In Leeds, England the Armley asbestos disaster involved several court cases against Turner & Newall where local residents who contracted mesothelioma claimed compensation because of the asbestos pollution from the company's factory. One notable case was that of June Hancock, who contracted the disease in 1993 and died in 1997.[53]

 

 

 

There are two types of operations that may be offered to patients with pleural mesothelioma: pleurectomy/decortication and extrapleural pneumonectomy. Pleurectomy/decortication is usually a palliative (relieves symptoms without curing the cancer) operation in cases where the entire tumor cannot be removed. It involves removal of the pleura, where the majority of the tumor is located. It is effective in controlling effusions (fluid accumulation) and decreasing the pain caused by the cancer.

Extrapleural pneumonectomy is a far more extensive operation and most often used in cases of localized mesothelioma. The operation is technically difficult and performed only by surgeons in large specialized medical centers. It involves removing the pleura, diaphragm, pericardium, and the whole lung on the side of the tumor. The patient must be in overall good health with no other serious illnesses in order to tolerate the large operation. This operation is intended to remove all or most of the cancer and some surrounding tissues as well.

Surgical treatment of peritoneal mesothelioma is often performed either to help relieve symptoms or to attempt to remove the tumor from the wall of the abdomen and other digestive organs. As with pleural mesothelioma, these tumors are often too extensive to remove completely. Similar operations can be performed to remove a mesothelioma from the pericardium (the sac around the heart).

 

 

 

Mesothelioma Clinics - Cancer Centers

Mesothelioma ClinicsAnyone whose life has been touched by mesothelioma understands that it is necessary to locate the best care available for this rare form of cancer, which is quite difficult to treat successfully. Therefore, finding excellent doctors and other medical professionals who are well-versed in mesothelioma care in particular is important and doing it as quickly as possible is essential in order to best fight this disease.

Most of the major cancer centers in the United States and the clinics devoted specifically to mesothelioma patients offer the latest in treatments for the disease. In addition, these centers employ physicians who stay abreast as to the particulars of these treatments, offering the best chance for extending the patient’s life expectancy and improving his/her overall quality of life during the fight against asbestos-caused cancer.

Happily, as more and more dollars are funneled towards the study of mesothelioma, more and more doctors are jumping on the bandwagon of mesothelioma care, making it a bit easier to find physicians who can provide everything the mesothelioma patient needs to address their situation.

Finding a Mesothelioma Clinic/Cancer Center

Those who live in large cities are often fortunate enough to have a major cancer center located in their proverbial backyard. Many of these cancer centers can be found at the nation’s leading universities. This makes mesothelioma treatment convenient for many, with little travel required for doctor’s appointments, treatments, or hospital stays.

Others are not so fortunate. mesothelioma patients who live in rural areas or away from large cities may be required to travel in order to find the best care available for their disease. Most of these cancer centers understand that many patients travel quite a distance to take advantage of their services and they are eager to assist the patient and their family in making their visit(s) to the hospital as easy as possible.

Hence, these cancer centers employ helpful staff members that can assist with issues like long-term or short-term housing for patients and their families, especially for those who will remain in that location for treatment for an extended period of time. Most also provide other essential information for family members who will be staying with the patient including info on public transportation, dining, shopping, and more.

In most cases, these cancer centers also offer emotional and spiritual support for patients and families, including those nearby and those who’ve traveled many miles to take advantage of the top-notch services available at their institution.

A directory of Mesothelioma Clinics and Cancer Centers is listed below by state for your convenience.

 

Veterans & Mesothelioma

Veterans and Mesothelioma

Listen to audio about Veterans and Mesothelioma.

Veterans can develop mesothelioma as a result of asbestos exposure during their military service.

For decades, the men and women from all four branches (Army, Navy, Air Force and Marines) of the United States military have defended our country, both in times of war and in times of peace. Veterans put their lives on the line each and every day, both on the battlefront and at the many U.S. military bases located around the world. Of all the individuals in the United States that have been diagnosed with mesothelioma cancer, the veteran population has been affected the most.

The simple reason for this increased risk is exposure to asbestos. Asbestos, the only known cause of mesothelioma, was used by the U.S. military in literally hundreds of applications. Because exposure was unavoidable for some, mesothelioma remains one of the most serious diseases affecting veterans today, particularly those who served between World War II and the Vietnam Conflict.

Asbestos was used in all branches of the military for many years, especially during the years of World War II and the Korean Conflict. At that time, shipbuilding was at its peak. In fact, about 4.3 million Americans worked in shipyards during World War II and because of the daily tasks they were required to perform, many were at risk for developing asbestos-related diseases.

Navy veterans are at the greatest risk to develop mesothelioma as asbestos was widely used in Naval ships and shipyards.

Navy veterans were exposed to high levels of asbestos present in many areas of navy ships including boiler rooms, engine rooms, galleys and sleeping quarters. While the soldiers who lived and worked aboard the ships - including gunmen, boilermen, and firemen - were susceptible to inhaling asbestos, those who built and repaired the ships were even more prone to developing diseases associated with the toxic mineral. They were tradesmen such as pipefitters, plumbers, mechanics, shipfitters, electricians, welders and boilermakers to name a few.

There have even been instances where military base secretaries, and others who did not work directly on ships, developed mesothelioma cancer through second-hand asbestos exposure. Second hand exposure occurs when asbestos dust is inhaled from the clothes and hair of others who worked with asbestos on the base or from an abundance of asbestos circulating through the air. Loved ones of shipyard workers have also been known to develop the disease due to the same type of secondary exposure.

Because mesothelioma can remain dormant for several decades, many veterans who served during the 1950s to the 1970s are just being diagnosed with the disease. These brave men and women were unaware that they would face a terminal illness in their later years when they had hoped to be enjoying retirement and extra time with their family. Mesothelioma is a particularly difficult disease to battle, and though there have been great advances in the area of mesothelioma treatment in recent years, the overall prognosis for the disease is not a favorable one.

There has also been some controversy surrounding the U.S. government and their responsibility to those who have developed mesothelioma and other asbestos diseases as a result of their service to the country. While the Veterans Administration offers some guidance to afflicted personnel, it is clear that more must be done to support veterans with mesothelioma, including compensation for medical expenses, loss of income, and suffering.

Topics in this Section

Mesothelioma Navy

Navy veterans were exposed to high levels of asbestos while serving on ships in the naval fleet as well as in naval shipyards.

Mesothelioma Army

United States Army veterans were exposed to asbestos in buildings on military installations and while working on military vehicles.

Mesothelioma Air Force

Those who served in the United States Air Force are at risk for developing mesothelioma from exposure to asbestos.

Mesothelioma Marines

Marine Corps veterans that spent time at sea aboard Navy ships may have been exposed to asbestos and could be at risk to develop mesothelioma.

Veteran Asbestos Exposure

Learn more about the asbestos exposure risk that Veterans faced in shipyards, on ships and at U.S. military bases while serving their country.

Veteran Medical Support

There are treatment options and avenues available to Veterans seeking medical support for a mesothelioma diagnosis.

Veteran Treatment Centers

Veteran hospitals and treatment centers run by the U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs offer medical services for Veterans diagnosed with mesothelioma.

Therapy for Veterans

Healing resources exist for Veterans who face specific post-deployment issues that can worsen with the development of serious health issues like mesothelioma.

Veteran Resources

The VA provides a range of resources for Veterans suffering from severe illnesses like mesothelioma or other diseases.

Veteran Legal Support

Veterans diagnosed with mesothelioma might be eligible to receive financial compensation for lost income or medical expenses.

 

 

 

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